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The discovery of microbialites in small coastal ponds of western Sardinia provides new evidence for understanding the microbial-related lithification phenomenon. The distribution of microbialites is specified, as well as their main characteristics. The succession of various layers corresponding to microbial mats with varying compositions also indicates significant environmental variations in ponds that can suffer a complete seasonal desiccation. The diatomaceous assemblage associated with microbialite support interesting data on the involved microorganism‘s consortium and the micritic mineralization within EPS (Exopolymeric substances) products. The Sardinian microbialites are considered as specific, given their occurrence under very special to extreme environmental conditions and should be integrated into a broader environmental classification of microbialites.